Views: 6 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-08 Origin: Site
Sodium formate, also known as sodium formate.Sodium formate is one of the simplest organic carboxylates. Its appearance is white crystals or powder with a slight formic acid odor.Slightly hydrolytic and hygroscopic.Sodium formate is mainly used for the production of insurance powder, oxalic acid, and formic acid.Sodium formate can be used in the leather industry as a camouflage acid in the chromium leather process. It also can be used for the catalyst and stabilizing the synthesis agent, a reducing agent in the printing and dyeing industry.Sodium formate is harmless to the human body and stimulates the eyes, respiratory system and skin.
Sodium Formate is a salt of strong base and weak acid. Hence it can be used as a buffer in maintaining pH.
Sodium formate is used in several fabric dyeing and printing processes. It is also used as a buffering agent for strong mineral acids to increase their pH, as a food additive, and as a de-icing agent.
In structural biology, sodium formate can be used as a cryoprotectant for X-ray diffraction experiments on protein crystals, which are typically conducted at a temperature of 100 K to reduce the effects of radiation damage.
Solid sodium formate is used as a non-corrosive agent at airports for de-icing of runways in mix with corrosion inhibitors and other additives, which rapidly penetrate solid snow and ice layers, detach them from the asphalt or concrete and melt the ice rapidly. Sodium formate was also used as a road deicer in the city of Ottawa from 1987 to 1988.
The high freezing point depression e.g. in comparison to the still frequently used urea (which is effective but problematic due to eutrophication) effectively prevents the re-icing, even at temperatures below −15 °C. The thawing effect of the solid sodium formate can even be increased by moistening with aqueous potassium formate or potassium acetate solutions. The degradability of sodium formate is particularly advantageous with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 211 mg O2/g compared with the de-icing agents sodium acetate (740 mg O2/g) and urea with (> 2,000 mg O2/g).
Saturated sodium formate solutions (as well as mixtures of other alkali metal formates such as potassium and cesium formate) are used as important drilling and stabilizing aids in gas and oil exploration because of their relatively high density. By mixing the corresponding saturated alkali metal formate solutions any densities between 1,0 and 2,3 g/cm3 can be set. The saturated solutions are biocidal and long-term stable against microbial degradation. Diluted, on the other hand, they are fast and completely biodegradable. As alkali metal formates as drilling aids make it unnecessary to add solid fillers to increase the density (such as barytes) and the formate solutions can be recovered and recycled at the drilling site, formates represent an important advance in exploration technology.
sodium formate is hazardous.Sodium formate is harmless to the human body and stimulates the eyes, respiratory system and skin.
A safety letter from Merck & Co. chemists titled“Nitric Oxide at High Pressure" described two explosions during depressurization of a reaction between NO and methanol under basic conditions. The products in a model system with sodium methoxide were described as nitrous oxide and formic acid, presumably as sodium formate. A potential danger in this system should be pointed out: Sodium formate undergoes thermal decomposition to give hydrogen gas (J. Am. Chem. Soc,DOl: 10.1021/ja02245a004), which explodes spontaneously in the presence of nitrous oxide above critical limits, even in the absence of a catalyst or source of ignition.
The presence of hydrogen and nitrous oxide above a reaction mixture was undoubtedly the cause of an explosion and fire in my laboratory in 1981 during workup of a reaction between sodium and nitric oxide. The major product of the reaction is cissodium hyponitrite, which decomposes immediately in water to form sodium hydroxide and nitrous oxide. The employee, a biology major who was badly burned, had carried out the reaction a number of times without incident. This time he tried twice and failed to disperse about 30 g of sodium in toluene and, without consulting me, decided to continue the reaction. The explosion occurred as he was attempting to destroy the unreacted sodium, a lump too large to remove from the flask, by dropwise addition of water. Most of the sodium had reacted at the time of the explosion, and there was no indication of mechanical failure. At the time, I was unaware of the extreme incompatibility of the two gases, and the accident was extremely puzzling. The reaction mixture was close to room temperature and was stirred rapidly while the headspace was flushed with a stream of nitrogen.
When | arrived at the laboratory a few minutes after the accident, nitrogen was still flowing from the burned-off end of the plastic tubing. Since that time, I noticed a reference to the“hydrogen explosion" in the ancient chemical literature as a way to identify nitrous oxide.
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