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How do you make 10% ammonium persulfate?

Views: 35     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-12-18      Origin: Site

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Introduction:



Ammonium persulfate is a compound that plays an important role in the chemical and industrial fields. The molecular formula of this compound is (NH4) 2S2O8, and it is often used as an oxidant, polymerization catalyst, and initiator for other chemical reactions. The unique properties of ammonium persulfate make it an indispensable factor in many applicat

ions.


Firstly, ammonium persulfate plays a crucial role in the oxidation reaction. Due to its strong oxidizing properties, it is often used to initiate the oxidation of organic and inorganic substances, promoting the progress of many synthesis processes. The application of ammonium persulfate in chemical synthesis and industrial production has promoted the preparation of many important chemical substances.


Secondly, ammonium persulfate is widely used in polymerization reactions. As a initiator of polymerization reactions, it can initiate the polymerization of monomer molecules and promote the formation of polymer compounds. This has critical significance in industries such as rubber and plastics, driving the production and development of these materials.


In addition, ammonium persulfate also plays a role in the water treatment process. Its oxidizing properties make it an effective tool for treating organic and inorganic pollutants in water, helping to improve water quality and maintain environmental health.


Considering the widespread application of ammonium persulfate in multiple fields, this article will focus on exploring the experimental process of preparing a 10% ammonium persulfate solution to ensure accurate and reliable results can be obtained in practical applications.


The demand and application of 10% ammonium persulfate:


Applications in experiments and industry:


Laboratory applications:


Oxidation experiment: 10% ammonium persulfate solution is commonly used in organic synthesis experiments as a strong oxidant to promote the oxidation reaction of organic compounds in the reaction.

Polymerization reaction: Polymerization experiments in the laboratory, especially the synthesis of polymer compounds, often require 10% ammonium persulfate as the initiator of the polymerization reaction.


Industrial applications:


ammonium persulfate7

Rubber industry: 10% ammonium persulfate is used as an initiator in rubber production to promote the crosslinking reaction of rubber and improve its strength and wear resistance.

Plastic industry: In plastic manufacturing, 10% ammonium persulfate can be used as an initiator to promote the polymerization reaction of monomers and produce high molecular weight polymers.

Water treatment: 10% ammonium persulfate solution is widely used in the field of water treatment to remove organic and inorganic pollutants from water and maintain water quality.


Advantages of 10% concentration:


Accurate control: The 10% concentration is easy to prepare and provides precise control of ammonium persulfate concentration, suitable for experiments and industrial processes that require specific concentrations.


Safety considerations: Compared to higher concentrations of ammonium persulfate solutions, a 10% concentration is safer during use, reducing potential risks and operational difficulties.


Economic benefits: A 10% concentration solution is effective enough in many applications, while reducing raw material costs and improving economic efficiency.


Preparation work before the production of ammonium persulfate:


Safety precautions:


Wear personal protective equipment, including laboratory jackets, goggles, gloves, etc., to ensure the safety of laboratory personnel.


Operate in well ventilated areas: Conduct experiments in a well ventilated laboratory to prevent the accumulation of harmful gases.


Avoid contact with other chemicals: During the experiment, avoid unpredictable reactions between ammonium persulfate and other chemicals, especially contact with combustible materials.


Understanding first aid measures: Laboratory personnel should be familiar with the hazardous properties of ammonium persulfate and understand appropriate first aid measures in order to take prompt action in the event of an accident.


Required materials and equipment:


The precursor substances of ammonium persulfate are ammonium sulfate (NH4) 2SO4 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).


Reaction vessel: A reaction vessel used for mixing and reacting ammonium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide, preferably made of materials with good corrosion resistance.


Mixing equipment: used for mixing reactants to ensure sufficient reaction.


Heating equipment: Some methods for preparing ammonium persulfate require heating, so heating equipment such as an electric furnace or heating plate is required.


Thermometer: used to monitor the reaction temperature and ensure that the reaction is carried out within an appropriate temperature range.


Cooling equipment: used in situations where reaction temperature needs to be controlled, such as coolers or ice baths.


PH measurement tool: If the reaction needs to be carried out under specific pH conditions, corresponding pH measurement tools are required.


Preparation work before the production of ammonium persulfate:

Safety precautions:

Wear personal protective equipment, including laboratory jackets, goggles, gloves, etc., to ensure the safety of laboratory personnel.


Operate in well ventilated areas: Conduct experiments in a well ventilated laboratory to prevent the accumulation of harmful gases.


Avoid contact with other chemicals: During the experiment, avoid unpredictable reactions between ammonium persulfate and other chemicals, especially contact with combustible materials.


Understanding first aid measures: Laboratory personnel should be familiar with the hazardous properties of ammonium persulfate and understand appropriate first aid measures in order to take prompt action in the event of an accident.


Required materials and equipment:

The precursor substances of ammonium persulfate are ammonium sulfate (NH4) 2SO4 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).


Reaction vessel: A reaction vessel used for mixing and reacting ammonium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide, preferably made of materials with good corrosion resistance.


Mixing equipment: used for mixing reactants to ensure sufficient reaction.


Heating equipment: Some methods for preparing ammonium persulfate require heating, so heating equipment such as an electric furnace or heating plate is required.


Thermometer: used to monitor the reaction temperature and ensure that the reaction is carried out within an appropriate temperature range.


Cooling equipment: used in situations where reaction temperature needs to be controlled, such as coolers or ice baths.


PH measurement tool: If the reaction needs to be carried out under specific pH conditions, corresponding pH measurement tools are required.


Production Step 1: Solution Preparation:

The use of concentrated sulfuric acid:

During the experiment, the first step is to prepare concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This can be achieved by slowly adding concentrated sulfuric acid to water, taking care to avoid generating too much heat.


Add water from the laboratory cooling water tank to the reaction vessel to form a large volume of water. Stir and maintain the stirring state.


Slowly add sulfuric acid to the water while continuously stirring. In this step, it is necessary to add it slowly and carefully to prevent the generation of intense heat during the water dissolution process and ensure that the reaction temperature is maintained within a safe range.


Wait for the sulfuric acid to fully dissolve and ensure that the required concentration of sulfuric acid solution is obtained.

The process of adding ammonia:

Adding ammonia (NH3) gas to concentrated sulfuric acid requires a well ventilated area to ensure that harmful gases do not accumulate in the laboratory.


Slowly introduce ammonia gas into sulfuric acid through an appropriate device while continuously stirring. Be careful in this step to ensure even dispersion of ammonia gas to avoid unsafe situations caused by excessive local concentration.


Monitor the pH value during the reaction process to ensure it is within the appropriate range. During the process of adding ammonia, the pH value usually increases, but it needs to be controlled at a safe and controllable level.


Continue stirring and introducing ammonia gas until the desired reaction endpoint is reached.

Production Step 2: Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide:

Ratio of reactants:

Before adding hydrogen peroxide, ensure that an appropriate amount of concentrated sulfuric acid and ammonia has been accurately measured and mixed, and that the required solution concentration has been achieved.


Ensure that the molar ratio of the preparation reaction of ammonium persulfate meets the required experimental conditions. This ratio is usually determined by experimental design or industrial production requirements.


Process control and reaction temperature:

The addition of hydrogen peroxide usually needs to be carried out in a controlled environment to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the reaction.


Control the reaction temperature to avoid excessive heating and uncontrolled reaction. This can be achieved through cooling equipment (such as a cooler or ice bath), selecting an appropriate temperature range based on the characteristics of the reaction.


Slowly add hydrogen peroxide solution to the previously prepared ammonium sulfate solution while maintaining stirring. Be careful during the process to avoid the release of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide gases during the reaction.


Monitoring reaction process:

Throughout the entire reaction process, the progress of the reaction can be controlled by monitoring the reaction temperature and observing changes in the solution.


Ensure that the reaction proceeds at an appropriate rate and gradually adjust the rate of hydrogen peroxide addition as needed.


Pay attention to the solution state after the reaction is completed to ensure the complete formation of ammonium persulfate.


End of reaction and product treatment:

When the reaction is complete, stop the addition of hydrogen peroxide and continue stirring for a period of time to ensure sufficient progress of the reaction.


If necessary, the pH value of the product can be adjusted by adding appropriate acids or bases.


Finally, filter or centrifuge the obtained solution to obtain a pure ammonium persulfate solution.

Production Step 2: Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide:

Ratio of reactants:

Before adding hydrogen peroxide, ensure that an appropriate amount of concentrated sulfuric acid and ammonia has been accurately measured and mixed, and that the required solution concentration has been achieved.


Ensure that the molar ratio of the preparation reaction of ammonium persulfate meets the required experimental conditions. This ratio is usually determined by experimental design or industrial production requirements.

Process control and reaction temperature:

The addition of hydrogen peroxide usually needs to be carried out in a controlled environment to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the reaction.


Control the reaction temperature to avoid excessive heating and uncontrolled reaction. This can be achieved through cooling equipment (such as a cooler or ice bath), selecting an appropriate temperature range based on the characteristics of the reaction.


Slowly add hydrogen peroxide solution to the previously prepared ammonium sulfate solution while maintaining stirring. Be careful during the process to avoid the release of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide gases during the reaction.


Monitoring reaction process:

Throughout the entire reaction process, the progress of the reaction can be controlled by monitoring the reaction temperature and observing changes in the solution.


Ensure that the reaction proceeds at an appropriate rate and gradually adjust the rate of hydrogen peroxide addition as needed.


Pay attention to the solution state after the reaction is completed to ensure the complete formation of ammonium persulfate.

End of reaction and product treatment:

When the reaction is complete, stop the addition of hydrogen peroxide and continue stirring for a period of time to ensure sufficient progress of the reaction.


If necessary, the pH value of the product can be adjusted by adding appropriate acids or bases.

Finally, filter or centrifuge the obtained solution to obtain a pure ammonium persulfate solution.

Quality control of 10% ammonium persulfate:

Method for detecting concentration:

Titration method: Use an appropriate indicator to determine the concentration of sulfate ions in ammonium persulfate by titration. This requires a known concentration of sulfuric acid solution as the titrant.


Spectrophotometry: Using a UV visible spectrophotometer, measure the absorbance of ammonium persulfate at a specific wavelength, and calculate the concentration based on the standard curve.


Specific gravity method: By measuring the specific gravity of ammonium persulfate solution, its concentration can be estimated, especially suitable for solutions with relatively low concentrations.

Steps for checking impurities:

Ion chromatography: Use an ion chromatograph to analyze possible ions in ammonium persulfate, such as chloride ions, sulfate ions, etc. This helps to determine if there are any ions present that are different from what was expected.


PH measurement: Measure the pH value of ammonium persulfate solution to check for acidic or alkaline impurities. The appropriate pH range is crucial for certain applications.


Heavy metal detection: Use appropriate analytical methods, such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or mass spectrometry, to detect potential heavy metal ions in ammonium persulfate and ensure they are within a safe range.


Volatile substance detection: By heating the sample, detect the release of volatile substances to eliminate possible organic impurities.

Storage and Security:

Appropriate storage conditions:

Temperature control: Ammonium persulfate should be stored in a cool, dry place, away from high temperatures and direct sunlight. Avoid storing in damp environments to prevent moisture absorption of crystals.


Container selection: Use containers with good corrosion resistance, such as glass bottles or polyethylene bottles, to prevent reactions with container materials.


Isolation: Avoid contact between ammonium persulfate and combustibles, organic matter, and reducing agents. Maintain a certain isolation distance from other chemicals during storage.

Safety operation suggestions:

Personal protective equipment: Operators should wear appropriate personal protective equipment, including laboratory jackets, goggles, and gloves, to prevent splashing and contact.


Ventilation: When handling ammonium persulfate, ensure that it is carried out in a well ventilated laboratory environment to avoid the accumulation of harmful gases.


Avoid mixing: Avoid mixing ammonium persulfate with other chemicals, especially combustibles and reducing agents, to prevent dangerous reactions.


Emergency measures: Set up emergency equipment in the laboratory, such as emergency eye washers and showers, to cope with possible accident situations.


Detailed labeling: Detailed labeling of storage containers, indicating their contents and relevant safety information, so that operators can clearly understand and take appropriate protective measures.


Regular inspection: Regularly inspect storage conditions to ensure that containers are intact and prevent leakage or contamination.


Adhere to regulations: Strictly follow laboratory and safety regulations, conduct safety training to enhance operator awareness of risks.

Environmentally friendly production methods:

Methods to reduce waste:

Catalyst selection: Choose an efficient catalyst to reduce the generation of by-products during the reaction process and improve reaction selectivity.


Solvent substitution: Using environmentally friendly solvents or solvent substitution techniques to reduce the adverse effects of organic solvents on the environment.


Garbage classification and reuse: In the production process, actively implement garbage classification and reuse policies to minimize waste generation and improve resource reuse efficiency.


Energy efficiency: By optimizing production processes, improving energy utilization efficiency, reducing unnecessary energy waste, it helps to reduce environmental burden.


Biodegradable materials: When possible, use biodegradable materials to replace difficult to degrade materials, reducing the burden on land and water resources.

The importance of green production:

Sustainable utilization of resources: Green production promotes sustainable utilization of resources by reducing their use and waste, which helps to slow down the rate of natural resource depletion.


Environmental pollution reduction: adopting environmentally friendly production methods can help reduce the emissions of chemicals and pollutants, thereby reducing the degree of pollution to air, water, and soil.


Ecological balance maintenance: Green production helps maintain ecological balance, reduce damage to ecosystems, and promote the protection of biodiversity.


Sustainable development: Through green production, enterprises can better meet the needs of society for sustainable development and enhance their sense of social responsibility.


Market competitiveness: In the context of increasing environmental awareness, adopting green production methods can help enterprises improve the market competitiveness of their products and attract consumers who are increasingly concerned about environmental protection.

conclusion:

The correct execution of key steps in the production of 10% ammonium persulfate is crucial for ensuring the safety and quality of the product.

Solution preparation stage:

Prepare ammonium sulfate solution gradually using concentrated sulfuric acid and ammonia to ensure suitable reaction conditions.


Be careful during the process of adding ammonia to ensure even reaction and pH control within a safe range.

The addition of hydrogen peroxide: Precisely control the proportion of reactants to ensure that the molar ratio meets the requirements of experiments or industrial production.


Control the rate of hydrogen peroxide addition to prevent excessive heating during the reaction process.


Crystal separation and purification: Choose appropriate crystallization methods, such as cooling crystallization or volatile solvent crystallization, to obtain uniform and pure crystals. Improve the purity of the product through steps such as dissolution, recrystallization, washing, and drying.


Quality control of 10% ammonium persulfate: Use titration, spectrophotometry, or specific gravity methods to detect product concentration and ensure it meets expected requirements.


Use ion chromatography, pH measurement, and other analytical techniques to check for possible impurities and ensure the purity of the product.

Emphasize the importance of safety and quality control:

Safe operation: Throughout the entire production process, operators must strictly follow laboratory safety regulations, wear appropriate personal protective equipment, and ensure the normal operation of laboratory equipment.


Environmentally friendly: adopting green production methods to reduce waste generation can help reduce adverse impacts on the environment.


Quality control: Regular quality control of products is carried out to ensure that they meet standards, and adjustments and improvements are made as necessary.


Training and awareness: Provide necessary training to operators to enhance their awareness of safety and quality control, thereby reducing the probability of accidents.


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