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What Are The Uses of Persulfate?

Views: 5     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-12-14      Origin: Site

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CITATION:


Persulfate is a type of chemical compound, usually referring to sulfate ions (SO ₄) ² A salt with a peroxide group on it, where the chemical formula of the peroxide group is O ₂ ² ⁻. The most common persulfates are sodium persulfate、 ammonium persulfatePotassium Persulfate


The importance of persulfate is mainly reflected in its properties as an oxidant. Persulfates are used as powerful oxidants in many chemical reactions and industrial processes because they can release oxygen, promoting oxidation reactions of organic and inorganic substances. This makes persulfate widely used in fields such as synthetic organic chemistry, polymerization reactions, bleaching processes, and water treatment.




CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PERSULFATE:



Explain its chemical composition:


The chemical properties of persulfate and its unique persulfate ion (S ₂ O ₈) ² ⁻) closely related. The following is an explanation of its chemical composition:


1.Persulfate ion (S ₂ O ₈) ² ⁻):

Structure: The persulfate ion is composed of two sulfate ions (SO ₄) ² ⁻) Formed by a single bond of oxygen element. Its molecular formula is (SO ₄) ₂ ² ⁻ represents a structure where two sulfate ions share an oxygen atom.


2.Oxidized state:

The oxidation state of sulfur atoms in ions is positively hexavalent, reflecting that the oxidation state of oxygen atoms is -2. The persulfate ion therefore has a total charge of -2.


3.The strong oxidizing properties of persulfate ions:

Due to the single bond connection of oxygen atoms in sulfate ions, the oxygen atoms in persulfate ions are more easily released, exhibiting strong oxidizing properties. In chemical reactions, this oxidizing property allows persulfate to oxidize other substances to a higher oxidation state.


4.Reactivity:

Persulfate can decompose under appropriate conditions, releasing oxygen. This characteristic makes it a strong oxidant that can be used to initiate combustion reactions or promote oxidation reactions of other organic and inorganic substances.


5.Hydrolysis reaction:

Persulfate undergoes hydrolysis reaction in water, producing sulfuric acid and oxygen. Hydrolysis is a process in which the addition of water molecules leads to the decomposition of persulfate ions into sulfate ions and oxygen.


6.Thermal stability:

Persulfate is relatively stable at room temperature, but may decompose under high temperatures or exposure to light. This property requires appropriate preventive measures to be taken when handling and storing persulfate to ensure safety.




Discuss its reaction properties:


Persulfate has strong reactivity, mainly manifested in its strong oxidizing and easily decomposing properties. The following are some of the main reaction properties of persulfate:


1.Oxidation reaction:

Persulfate is a strong oxidizing agent that can oxidize other substances to a higher oxidation state. In organic synthesis, persulfates are often used to oxidize olefins, sulfides, and nitrogen-containing compounds, promoting their chemical reactions.


2.Triggering polymerization reaction:

As an initiator, persulfate can initiate free radical polymerization reactions. In the polymer industry, persulfate can be used to initiate the polymerization of monomers such as acrylates and acrylonitrile, promoting their formation into high molecular weight polymers.


3.Hydrolysis reaction:

Persulfate undergoes hydrolysis reaction in water, producing sulfuric acid and oxygen. This is the process of decomposition of persulfate ions caused by the addition of water molecules.


4.Decomposition reaction:

Persulfate may decompose under high temperature or exposure to light, producing sulfuric acid and oxygen. This feature requires attention during storage and use to prevent unexpected hazards.


5.Reaction with reducing agent:

Persulfate can react with some reducing agents, where sulfate ions may be reduced to lower sulfur oxides. In such reactions, persulfate acts as an oxidant.


6.Reaction with organic matter:

Persulfate can react with many organic compounds, such as alcohols, ethers, amines, etc. In these reactions, persulfate is often used as an oxidant or initiator.



INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS:


Peroxysulfate bleach:


Persulfate is widely used as a bleaching agent in the textile industry, mainly to remove pigments, oils, and other impurities from natural fibers or fabrics, resulting in clean white fibers. The following is a detailed explanation of persulfate as a bleaching agent in the textile industry:


1.Strong oxidizing properties:

Persulfate is a strong oxidant that can effectively oxidize and remove organic compounds such as pigments and oils from fibers. This strong oxidizing property makes it an ideal choice for textile bleaching.


2.Efficient bleaching:

Persulfate can complete the bleaching process in a relatively short time, improving production efficiency. It has good bleaching effects on different types of fibers, such as cotton, linen, wool, and synthetic fibers.


3.Wide applicability:

Persulfate bleach is suitable for various fibers and fabrics, and can be used to bleach cotton fabrics, linen fabrics, blended fabrics, etc., to achieve the required whiteness standards.


4.Mild operating conditions:

Compared to some other bleaching agents, persulfate can exert its effects under relatively mild operating conditions. This is beneficial for some temperature sensitive fibers or fabrics, avoiding possible damage.


5.Easy to handle and stable:

Peroxysulfate bleach is easy to handle during stirring and mixing, and is relatively stable under appropriate storage conditions. However, it is still important to avoid high temperatures and direct sunlight during use to prevent instability and decomposition of the bleach.


6.Environmental considerations:

Compared to some traditional chlorine bleaches, persulfate bleaches have less impact on the environment because they do not generate harmful chlorides during the bleaching process.


7.Easy post-processing:

The bleached fabric is relatively easy to undergo subsequent treatments, such as dyeing or other finishing processes.


Wastewater treatment with persulfate:

Persulfate is used as an oxidant in industrial wastewater treatment, which has the function of removing pollutants. The following are the main functions and mechanisms of persulfate in removing pollutants from industrial wastewater:


1.Oxidative performance:

Persulfate is a strong oxidant that can release oxygen and oxidize pollutants in organic and inorganic wastewater into simpler compounds. This includes organic matter, pigments, heavy metal ions, etc.


2.Removing organic matter:

Persulfate oxidizes organic matter in organic wastewater, breaking them down into smaller molecules such as carbon dioxide, water, and other harmless substances. This helps to reduce the organic load in wastewater and improve water quality.


3.Degradation of pigments and dyes:

Persulfate has a good degradation effect on dyes and pigments in industrial wastewater. Through oxidation, it can destroy the structure of pigment molecules, causing them to lose their color, thereby improving the treatability of wastewater.


4.Heavy metal removal:

Persulfate can also form precipitates with some heavy metals in wastewater, thereby promoting the precipitation of these metal ions. This helps to remove heavy metals from wastewater and reduce environmental pollution.


5.Disinfection effect:

Due to its strong oxidizing properties, persulfate also has a certain disinfection effect, which can kill some microorganisms in wastewater and reduce microbial pollution.


6.Efficient reaction speed:

Under appropriate conditions, persulfate can complete oxidation reactions in a relatively short time, improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment.


7.Wide adaptability:

Persulfate has good adaptability to different types of wastewater and can be applied to the treatment of various industrial wastewater, including textile, printing and dyeing, chemical and other industries.



The food industry of persulfate:

Persulfate is used as a fungicide in the food industry, mainly for preservation and disinfection in food processing. The following is a discussion on the bactericidal use of persulfate in food processing:

Strong oxidizing and disinfection effects:


Persulfate is a strong oxidant that can release oxygen and has strong oxidation ability. This enables it to effectively kill bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms in food, achieving a good disinfection effect.


Food preservation:

Due to its strong oxidizing properties, persulfate can inhibit the growth of microorganisms in food and prolong its shelf life. This plays an important role in preventing food spoilage and spoilage.


Yeast and mold inhibition:

Persulfate has a certain inhibitory effect on yeast and mold. This is particularly important in baked goods such as pastries and bread, as it can maintain the freshness and quality of the food.


Fruit and vegetable processing:

In fruit and vegetable processing, persulfate can be used to treat cut fruits and vegetables, preventing them from discoloring due to air oxidation. This helps maintain the appearance and taste of the food.


Noodle food processing:

When making noodles (such as noodles and Rice noodles), persulfate can be used as a preservative to avoid microbial contamination and extend the storage life of noodles.


Beverage disinfection:

In beverage production, persulfate can be used to disinfect drinking water, fruit juice, etc., ensuring the hygiene and safety of beverages during production and packaging.


Compliance with regulations:

When using persulfate, food production enterprises must comply with relevant regulations and standards to ensure that it is used within a safe dosage range to prevent residues from causing adverse effects on consumer health.


Pharmaceutical manufacturing of persulfate:

Persulfate has some important applications in pharmaceutical manufacturing, mainly reflected in some key steps in the pharmaceutical process. The following emphasizes the application of persulfate in pharmaceutical manufacturing:


Organic synthesis reaction:

Persulfate is often used as an oxidant in organic synthesis reactions. In the pharmaceutical process, many organic synthesis processes require oxidation reactions, such as synthesizing intermediates for certain drugs. The strong oxidizing performance of persulfate makes it a commonly used oxidant in these synthesis routes.


Initiating agent:

In the polymerization reaction of drug manufacturing, persulfate can also be used as an initiator. It can trigger free radical polymerization reactions, promote the combination of monomer molecules to form the required polymer, such as carriers or sustained-release systems for certain drugs.


Oxidative reactions in drug synthesis:

When preparing certain types of drugs, persulfate can be used to catalyze oxidation reactions, such as the oxidation of alcohols. This type of reaction is crucial in the synthesis of certain drugs.


Laser printing technology:

In some drug production technologies of laser printing, persulfate can be used as a photoinitiator to generate the desired drug structure through photoinitiated reactions.


Hygiene and disinfection:

Persulfate can also be used for hygiene and disinfection measures in pharmaceutical production environments. Its strong oxidizing properties make it have a killing effect on microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, helping to maintain a clean production environment.


Catalytic reaction:

In some organic catalytic reactions, persulfate can serve as a catalyst for oxidants, promoting specific drug synthesis pathways.


Wastewater treatment:

In the treatment of wastewater in pharmaceutical manufacturing, persulfate can be used as an oxidant to help remove organic matter and other pollutants from the wastewater.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:

Examine the environmental impact of sulfate use:

Persulfate may have some impact on the environment during use, which is mainly related to its strong oxidizing properties and potential issues that may arise during storage, treatment, and disposal. The following is an investigation of the environmental impact of the use of persulfate:


Water pollution:

When persulfate is used in wastewater, its decomposition process releases oxygen, but it may also lead to an increase in acidity, affecting the acid-base balance of the water body. It is necessary to carefully control the dosage to prevent adverse effects on the water body.


Oxidative properties:

The strong oxidizing properties of persulfate may lead to oxidation of organic matter and organisms in the environment, thereby affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. It is necessary to ensure appropriate concentration and treatment conditions during use to mitigate the impact on natural ecology.


Gas emissions:

During the decomposition of persulfate, oxygen and other gases may be produced. The emissions of these gases need to be controlled to prevent negative impacts on air quality.


Storage and transportation risks:

The storage and transportation of persulfate require careful operation, as it may decompose under high temperature or exposure to light, releasing oxygen. This may pose a risk of fire or explosion, affecting environmental safety.


Waste disposal:

Abandoned persulfates may have negative impacts on soil and groundwater. When dealing with persulfate waste, it is necessary to comply with relevant waste disposal regulations to prevent pollution to the environment.


Impact on biodiversity:

The strong oxidizing properties of persulfate may have an impact on microorganisms and other organisms in water, leading to changes in the ecosystem. This may have certain impacts on biodiversity and food chain in water bodies.


To mitigate the environmental impact of persulfate, users need to strictly follow usage standards and environmental regulations, take appropriate safety measures, control dosage, and take environmental protection measures during disposal and disposal. Meanwhile, for industries that use persulfate, promoting more environmentally friendly alternatives or improving technologies is also a way to reduce environmental impact.


Examine the environmental impact of sulfate use:

Persulfate may have some impact on the environment during use, which is mainly related to its strong oxidizing properties and potential issues that may arise during storage, treatment, and disposal. The following is an investigation of the environmental impact of the use of persulfate:


Water pollution:

When persulfate is used in wastewater, its decomposition process releases oxygen, but it may also lead to an increase in acidity, affecting the acid-base balance of the water body. It is necessary to carefully control the dosage to prevent adverse effects on the water body.


Oxidative properties:

The strong oxidizing properties of persulfate may lead to oxidation of organic matter and organisms in the environment, thereby affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. It is necessary to ensure appropriate concentration and treatment conditions during use to mitigate the impact on natural ecology.


Gas emissions:

During the decomposition of persulfate, oxygen and other gases may be produced. The emissions of these gases need to be controlled to prevent negative impacts on air quality.


Storage and transportation risks:

The storage and transportation of persulfate require careful operation, as it may decompose under high temperature or exposure to light, releasing oxygen. This may pose a risk of fire or explosion, affecting environmental safety.


Waste disposal:

Abandoned persulfates may have negative impacts on soil and groundwater. When dealing with persulfate waste, it is necessary to comply with relevant waste disposal regulations to prevent pollution to the environment.


Impact on biodiversity:

The strong oxidizing properties of persulfate may have an impact on microorganisms and other organisms in water, leading to changes in the ecosystem. This may have certain impacts on biodiversity and food chain in water bodies.


To mitigate the environmental impact of persulfate, users need to strictly follow usage standards and environmental regulations, take appropriate safety measures, control dosage, and take environmental protection measures during disposal and disposal. Meanwhile, for industries that use persulfate, promoting more environmentally friendly alternatives or improving technologies is also a way to reduce environmental impact.


Research and Innovation of Persulfate:

Persulfate, as a chemical substance, has a wide range of applications in research and innovation. The following are some aspects of research and innovation on persulfate:


Organic synthesis methodology:

Persulfate is widely used as an oxidant in the field of organic synthesis, and researchers have been seeking more efficient and selective organic synthesis methods to improve the efficiency of compound synthesis and reduce the occurrence of side reactions.


New catalysts:

Regarding the application of persulfate in organic synthesis, researchers are constantly striving to find new persulfate catalysts to improve reaction efficiency, selectivity, and environmental friendliness.


Green synthesis:

In the field of sustainable chemistry, researchers are committed to developing greener and more environmentally friendly synthesis methods related to persulfate to reduce adverse environmental impacts, including research on catalyst recycling and waste degradation.


Drug synthesis:

The application of persulfate in drug synthesis is also one of the research hotspots. By designing more efficient and low toxicity synthesis routes, researchers hope to improve the efficiency of drug preparation and reduce the generation of by-products.


Polymer Industry:

Persulfate is widely used as an initiator in the polymer industry. Researchers are committed to developing more selective and controllable persulfate initiation systems to meet the production needs of different polymers.


Water treatment technology:

The application of persulfate in water treatment is also a research direction, especially in wastewater treatment and environmental remediation. Researchers are exploring more effective methods for removing organic and inorganic pollutants.


Photocatalytic research:

The research on persulfate in the field of photocatalysis has also received much attention. By combining photocatalytic technology, oxidation reactions can be carried out under mild conditions, improving the selectivity and efficiency of the reaction.


Application of nanomaterials:

Some studies attempt to combine persulfate with nanomaterials to improve their catalytic performance and stability, and expand their potential applications in various fields.


CONCLUSION:

Persulfate, as a chemical substance, plays an important role in multiple fields. From the textile industry to the pharmaceutical industry, its uses are diverse. However, we also need to pay attention to its potential environmental and safety issues, which prompts us to be cautious when using persulfate.


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