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Environmental purification of potassium permanganate

Views: 1     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2024-04-30      Origin: Site


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Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), as a strong oxidant, plays a crucial role in the field of environmental purification. It can not only effectively remove organic pollutants from water, reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), but also kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms in water, thereby purifying water quality and ensuring the safety and hygiene of water resources.


During water treatment, potassium permanganate disrupts the structure of organic matter through oxidation, making it more easily decomposed by subsequent biological treatment processes. In addition, the reduction product of potassium permanganate, manganese dioxide (MnO2), is insoluble and can be separated from wastewater through physical methods to further purify water quality.


The application of potassium permanganate is not limited to water treatment, it also plays a role in soil disinfection, agricultural disease prevention and control, and other aspects. In soil disinfection, potassium permanganate can kill pathogens and pests in the soil, reducing the occurrence of crop diseases. In the prevention and control of agricultural diseases, potassium permanganate is used to prevent various plant diseases and ensure the healthy growth of crops.


With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and the development of technology, the application of potassium permanganate in environmental purification may be further expanded. Through continuous technological innovation and optimization, the use of potassium permanganate will be more efficient, safe, and environmentally friendly, making greater contributions to protecting the environment and human health.


The basic characteristics of potassium permanganate


Potassium permanganate. It usually appears as black purple, slender prismatic crystals or particles, with a metallic luster. The molecular weight of potassium permanganate is 158.03400, with a density of approximately 1.01g/mL (at 25 ° C) and a melting point of 240 ° C. At 20 ° C, the water solubility of potassium permanganate is 6.38g/100mL, and it is soluble in water and alkaline solution, slightly soluble in methanol, acetone, and sulfuric acid.


The most significant characteristic of potassium permanganate is its strong oxidizing ability. As a strong oxidant, potassium permanganate can oxidize many inorganic and organic substances. In acidic media, it slowly decomposes into manganese dioxide (MnO2), potassium salts, and oxygen, and light has a catalytic effect on this decomposition, so it is usually stored in brown bottles to prevent decomposition caused by light. The oxidizing properties of potassium permanganate make it widely used as an oxidant in laboratories and industry, such as in organic synthesis to oxidize compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, etc. In water and wastewater treatment, potassium permanganate is used to oxidize various pollutants such as hydrogen sulfide, phenols, iron, manganese, and organic and inorganic compounds, controlling odor and decolorization. In addition, potassium permanganate also has bactericidal, deodorizing, and detoxifying effects, commonly used for disinfecting and cleaning wounds. When using, the concentration and duration of potassium permanganate need to be strictly controlled to avoid potential harm to human health and the environment.


Application in water treatment


Removing organic pollutants


Potassium permanganate, as a strong oxidant, can react with various organic pollutants, destroy their chemical structure, and thus achieve the goal of removing pollutants. Within the common pH range of water treatment, potassium permanganate has strong oxidation ability towards organic pollutants. Its reduction product is insoluble and environmentally friendly manganese dioxide (MnO2), which is easy to separate from the solution. It can also be synergistically removed from pollution by adsorption, oxidation, and coagulation assistance with potassium permanganate. In addition, potassium permanganate pre oxidation can effectively reduce the generation of disinfection by-products in the effluent, such as trihalomethane and haloacetic acid.


Sterilization and disinfection


Potassium permanganate is also commonly used for sterilization and disinfection in water treatment. It can effectively kill various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae, reduce microbial pollution in water, and prevent the spread of diseases. The bactericidal effect of potassium permanganate is stronger than that of hydrogen peroxide, and its effect is long-lasting. In medical practice, potassium permanganate can be used to clean wounds, ulcers, or abscesses, as well as as to treat eczema and acute skin diseases as wet dressings or mixed with a certain concentration solution. In addition, potassium permanganate can also be used to disinfect drinking water and wastewater, improve water quality, and ensure public health and safety.


Application in Air Purification


Removing harmful gases


Potassium permanganate, due to its strong oxidizing properties, can be used to remove certain harmful gases from the air. For example, it can be used as an additive for carbon filters in air purifiers to increase the range of gases that can be removed. Activated carbon can effectively remove benzene, formaldehyde, and many other volatile organic compounds, but its efficiency in removing gases composed of sulfides is relatively low. For situations where sulfides or odors are unbearable, potassium permanganate can be added to activated carbon. Potassium permanganate can also be used to absorb harmful gases such as mercury vapor.


Particle settling


The role of plants in air purification is mainly reflected in reducing particle concentration and purifying the air through retention, attachment, and adhesion, also known as dry deposition. Research has shown that vegetation can increase surface roughness, reduce wind speed, increase surface moisture, and thus increase the sedimentation rate of air particles. In addition, the capture and adsorption of atmospheric pollutants by vegetation can effectively reduce the concentration of particulate matter in the environment, which is of great significance for urban air pollution prevention and control, green space regional planning, and sustainable development.


Application in soil remediation


Improving soil structure


Potassium permanganate can improve the organic matter in soil and promote the optimization of soil structure through its oxidation effect. In soil, potassium permanganate can react with organic matter to form more stable compounds, thereby improving soil fertility and permeability. In addition, potassium permanganate can also promote the activity of microorganisms in soil, further improving soil quality.


Removing heavy metals


Potassium permanganate also shows potential in removing heavy metal pollution from soil. It can convert heavy metals into insoluble or low toxicity forms through redox reactions, thereby reducing the bioavailability and migration of heavy metals. For example, potassium permanganate can react with heavy metal ions such as lead and cadmium in the soil, generating insoluble oxide or hydroxide precipitates, thereby reducing the bioavailability of these heavy metals.


Challenges and advantages in environmental purification


The Challenge of Potassium Permanganate

Selective issue: Potassium permanganate exhibits selectivity towards organic pollutants during the oxidation process, especially towards organic compounds containing electron rich groups such as phenols, double bonds, and aniline groups. This means that for certain pollutants that do not contain these functional groups, the removal efficiency of potassium permanganate may not be high.


PH dependence: The oxidation ability of potassium permanganate is greatly affected by pH, and its oxidation effect is better under acidic conditions. Therefore, under neutral or alkaline conditions, it may be necessary to adjust the pH value or find other auxiliary methods to improve its oxidation efficiency.


Secondary pollution risk: The use of potassium permanganate may lead to the release of manganese ions, which may cause secondary pollution problems when entering the environment.


Control of oxidant dosage: In order to achieve the desired oxidation effect, it is necessary to precisely control the dosage of potassium permanganate. Overuse may lead to resource waste and environmental risks.


Advantages and Potential

Strong oxidizing properties: Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant that can effectively remove organic pollutants from water and reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), playing an important role in water and wastewater treatment.


Environmentally friendly: The reduction product of potassium permanganate is insoluble and environmentally friendly manganese dioxide (MnO2), which is easy to separate from the solution and reduces the difficulty of subsequent treatment.


Sterilization and disinfection effect: Potassium permanganate has bactericidal, deodorizing, and detoxifying effects, which are stronger and longer lasting than the antibacterial and deodorizing effects of hydrogen peroxide solution. It can be used to disinfect drinking water and wastewater.


Technological progress: Through catalytic technology or in combination with other processes, the oxidation efficiency of potassium permanganate can be improved, such as using transition metal catalysis, complexing agent stabilization, and trace humic acid catalysis. The development of these technologies provides more possibilities for the application of potassium permanganate.


Soil remediation potential: The application of potassium permanganate in soil remediation has demonstrated its potential, such as through oxidation electric enhanced remediation technology, which can effectively improve the removal efficiency of chromium in chromium contaminated soil.


Cost effectiveness: Compared to other oxidants, potassium permanganate has the advantages of convenient use and low price, which makes it more cost-effective in environmental purification.


Actual case analysis


Industrial wastewater treatment cases


Case Overview


In the field of industrial wastewater treatment, potassium permanganate is widely used for the removal of organic pollutants, inorganic pollutants, and ionic pollutants in wastewater due to its strong oxidizing properties. For example, the acidic washing and bleaching wastewater from a certain electroplating plant contains severely excessive heavy metal ions such as iron, chromium, and manganese. By using potassium permanganate as an oxidant and combining with the oxidation-reduction catalytic contact filtration method, these wastewater were successfully treated. Under the optimal process conditions, the mass concentration of potassium permanganate added is 10mg/L, the reaction pH is 8, the filtration rate is 5m/h, and the removal rates of total chromium, manganese, total iron, and turbidity all reach over 99%. The effluent CODCr and pH meet the national emission standards.


Technical details


During the treatment process, the oxidation of potassium permanganate can not only destroy the structure of organic matter and improve its biodegradability, but also physically adsorb the generated manganese dioxide (MnO2) to further remove residual pollutants. In addition, potassium permanganate pre oxidation technology has also been used for the treatment of micro polluted water. For example, in the case of Dongjiang water treatment, pre oxidation enhanced coagulation effectively improved the removal rate of TOC and CODMn, and the removal rate of the total number of bacteria also exceeded 92.11%. These cases demonstrate the practical application effect and potential of potassium permanganate in industrial wastewater treatment.


Air purification project

Project Overview


In the field of air purification, air purifiers containing potassium permanganate oxidants are used to remove volatile organic pollutants (VOCs) such as formaldehyde from indoor air. By loading potassium permanganate onto different carriers, such as activated alumina, molecular sieves, or expanded perlite, the removal efficiency of formaldehyde can be improved. For example, in a study, potassium permanganate had the best effect on oxidizing formaldehyde by using activated alumina as a carrier, and the cumulative removal of formaldehyde reached 42% of the theoretical value.


Technical details


In the design of air purifiers, tubular and plate reactors were used to test the removal efficiency of potassium permanganate oxidants on different carriers. The experimental results show that when activated alumina is used as a carrier, the performance of the oxidant is higher, and the one-time pass rate of formaldehyde is between 21.88% and 69.33% at an air flow rate of 300m/h. When the amount of oxidant is 1.25kg, the purification efficiency of the tubular reactor is within the qualified range, while when the amount of oxidant is above 2.5kg, the purification efficiency reaches the high-efficiency level. In addition, tungsten modification δ- The preparation of MnO2 also demonstrates its potential for application in air purification, especially in catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde. Tungsten modification after 200 ℃ heat treatment δ- MnO2 exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability.




Potassium permanganate, as a strong oxidant, has significant value in the field of environmental purification. Its application in industrial wastewater treatment and air purification has been widely verified and recognized. In wastewater treatment, potassium permanganate can effectively remove organic pollutants and heavy metals, significantly improve water quality through oxidation and adsorption, and make it meet discharge standards. In terms of air purification, potassium permanganate is used in air purifiers to effectively remove indoor formaldehyde and other volatile organic pollutants, improving indoor air quality.


In future development, the application of potassium permanganate may be further expanded. Technological innovation will drive the improvement of efficiency and safety in the use of potassium permanganate, such as developing new formulas or processes to reduce its impact on the environment or improve its performance in specific applications. Meanwhile, the strengthening of environmental regulations may promote stricter regulation of the environmental impact during the use of potassium permanganate, promote the development of more environmentally friendly alternatives or improve existing processes. In addition, with the increasing demand for disinfection products, the application of potassium permanganate in public health and disease prevention will continue to receive attention. Through continuous technological innovation and regulatory compliance, the application of potassium permanganate will be more efficient, safe, and environmentally friendly, making greater contributions to the protection of the environment and human health.

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