Views: 4 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-21 Origin: Site
Ammonium Persulfate is an inorganic compound. It is a very useful chemical compound which is made by the electrolysis of a cold concentrated solution of either ammonium sulfate or ammonium bisulfate in sulfuric acid.
As an oxidizing agent and a source of radicals, Ammonium Persulfate finds many commercial applications.
Salts of sulfate are mainly used as radical initiators in the polymerization of certain alkenes. Commercially important polymers prepared using persulfates include styrene-butadiene rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene.
The sulfate radical adds to the alkene to give a sulfate ester radical. It is also used along with tetramethylethylenediamine to catalyze the polymerization of acrylamide in making a polyacrylamide gel, hence being important for SDS-PAGE and western blot.
Illustrative of its powerful oxidizing properties, it is used to etch copper on printed circuit boards as an alternative to ferric chloride solution. This property was discovered many years ago. In 1908, John William Turrentine used a dilute ammonium persulfate solution to etch copper. Turrentine weighed copper spirals before placing the copper spirals into the ammonium persulfate solution for an hour. After an hour, the spirals were weighed again and the amount of copper dissolved by ammonium persulfate was recorded. This experiment was extended to other metals such as nickel, cadmium, and iron, all of which yielded similar results. Ammonium persulfate is a standard ingredient in hair bleach.
Persulfates are used as oxidants in organic chemistry. For example, in the Minisci reaction.
Using electrolysis method, ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid preparation into electrolyte, after removing impurities electrolysis, HS04 discharged at the anode to form perdisuric acid, and then react with ammonium sulfate to obtain ammonium persulfate. When the content of ammonium persulfate in the anode liquid reaches a certain concentration, it can be separated and dried by filtration, crystal and centrifugation.
Ammonium Persulfate is combustion aid, corrosive, stimulating, can cause human burns. It is irritating and corrosive to the skin mucosa. It uses rhinitis, laryngitis, shortness of breath and cough after inhalation. Eye and skin contact can cause intense irritation, pain, and even burns. Oral administration causes abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Staff should be well protected, if accidentally touch the skin and eyes, should immediately rinse with a large amount of flowing water. Store in a cool and dry warehouse, and stay away from fire and heat source. Can not be mixed with organic matter, reducing agent, inflammable and explosive items.
closed operation, local exhaust air. Operators must be specially trained and strictly follow the operating procedures. It is recommended to wear hood electric air filter respirator, polyethylene gas clothing and rubber gloves. Stay away from fire and heat sources, and smoking is strictly prohibited in the workplace. Avoid the dust production. Avoid contact with reductants and active metal powders. Light loading and unloading when handling to prevent damage to packaging and containers. No vibration, impact, and friction are allowed. Equipped with the corresponding varieties and quantity of fire-fighting equipment and leakage emergency treatment equipment. The emptied container may remain harmful substances.
Storage precautions: Storage in a cool, dry, well-ventilated warehouse. Stay away from fire and heat sources. The packaging must be sealed to prevent moisture exposure. Should be stored separately with reducing agent, active metal powder, etc., avoid mixed storage. The reservoir area shall be provided with suitable material for the leaks.
plastic bag or two floor fully open or medium open steel bucket outside brown paper bag; ordinary wooden box outside plastic bag or two floor kraft paper bag; threaded mouth glass bottle, iron cover pressure mouth glass bottle, plastic bottle or ordinary wooden box outside metal bucket .
the railway transportation shall be arranged in strict accordance with the dangerous goods distribution table listed in the Transportation Rules of Dangerous Goods of the Ministry of Railways. Shipping separately to ensure that the container does not leak, collapse, fall or be damaged during transportation. Transport vehicles should be equipped with the corresponding variety and quantity of fire-fighting equipment. It is strictly prohibited to mix with acid, flammable materials, organic matter, reducing agent, spontaneous combustion articles, wet flammable articles, etc. Transportation speed should not be too fast, do not forcibly overtaking. Before and after loading and unloading, the transport vehicles should be thoroughly cleaned and washed, and it is strictly prohibited to mix with organic matter, flammable substances and other impurities.
Ammonium persulfate has its own share of side effects. The airborne dust that contains ammonium persulfate may be irritating to eye, nose, throat, lung and skin on contact. Exposure to high levels of dust can also cause difficulty in breathing.
It has been noted that the persulfate salts are a major cause of several asthmatic effects amongst women. Also, it has been suggested that the exposure to ammonium persulfate can lead to several asthmatic effects amongst the hairdressers and receptionists that are working in the hairdressing industry. These asthmatic effects are known to be caused by the oxidation of cysteine as well as methionine residues.
Ammonium persulfate is relatively easy and safe to handle. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel has reviewed the use of ammonium persulfate and other persulfates as oxidizing agents in hair colourants and lighteners and has deemed them safe for brief discontinuous use followed by thorough rinsing from the hair and skin. However, it has stated that manufacturers of these products should be aware of the potential for urticarial reactions at concentrations greater than 17.5%.
In a small study of hairdressers, occupational asthma (OA) was found in 51.1% and allergic occupational dermatitis in 36.2% of study participants. Ammonium persulfate was the responsible agent in 87.5% of OA cases. The average overall duration of exposure in the group of hairdressers with OA was 7 years and the average time from the start of exposure to onset of symptoms was 5.3 years. Whilst just over 30% had a family history of allergic disease, none of the patients had previous occupations with possible risk factors for asthma, rhinitis, or dermatitis prior to the becoming hairdressers.
Generally, ammonium persulfate is safe to use but some people may have an acute allergic reaction. Immediate urticaria after inhalation or contact appears to occur mainly in patients with a history of asthma. It is also evident from the study of hairdressers that repeated exposure may result in increased sensitivity to the substance, and that an allergic reaction may not become apparent until after many years of exposure.
At Qi Di Chem, we sell Ammonium Persulfate. The price of Ammonium Persulfate usually varies depending on the price of the raw material. For the latest price, please contact us and we will provide a quotation suitable for your country/region. We export worldwide, so you can contact us at email address email@example.com for a free quote, or send a message on WhatsApp for a quick response +86-186-5121-5887.